The test content i. Except for the Croatian language not yet availableall EU official languages are covered. In the real assessment you will do these tests in whichever of the 24 official EU languages you select as your main language i.
In English we say we need to try to put ourselves in their shoes.
There can sometimes be difficulties in understanding motivations in the real-world. At the time I did this work the late payment of commercial debt was a major issue in the UK, and some of this work was supplying evidence to government on what might help.
Trade credit is primarily about sales between organizations. When one organization buys goods and services from another usually an invoice is sent and the recipient pays it.
Typically in the UK invoices give customers 30 days to pay, either from the invoice date or from the end of the month. The time the customer is given to pay is known as the credit terms.
Based on this the literature largely US based saw firms that did not take early payment discount as in financial difficulty.
Although the implicit interest rate is high if the discount is not taken, the actual value of the price reduction can be small, and firms might find it uneconomic to take it. Also there is the issue of costs — someone might have to arrange payment in a small firm, and there may be a cost for making a payment from a business bank account there certainly was in those days in the UK SO: Auto-enrolment in the UK started in and I did work with NEST the pension provider set up by the government to make sure everyone had access to a pension provider when auto-enrolment was introduced in the run up to it.
NEST wanted to understand their potential customers — how did they view pension saving and what was the best way to communicate the ideas to people? What aspects might cause them concern? People very much see pensions as associated with being prudent and conservative — it is implicitly about safety and securing the future.
A common metaphor used was a penny rolling down the hill: This seemed to link to the idea that some products were suitable for some purposes but not others and linked to regulatory focus. This uncertainty is more of a problem for those who are less well off.
For those living on tight budgets losses and opportunity costs are particularly salient, and taking a risk with money, given the opportunity costs, is hard for some: Tax is an interesting area with there being two different approaches people can take to not paying it; tax avoidance and tax evasion.
In jurisdictions like the UK where the exact meaning of law is often unclear, knowledge of what will be found acceptable or unacceptable in law sometimes requires a court case to reach a decision just look up tax and Jaffa Cakes on the internet to see an example!
Attitudes to tax avoidance have changed a lot over time.
As a UK example, take this quote from Lord Clyde in So is there an ethical dimension to tax? If there is, where does this leave the tax practitioner?
The fact that there are calls for individuals and firms to behave differently in some way to something that might be considered legal suggests that the law is not fully embodying what is required for moral behavior.
The fact that law is interpretable in jurisdictions like the UK certainly leaves this possibility open.
Calls for different behavior in tax payers on moral grounds mean that taxpayers and their advisers are being asked to view tax law through a particular moral lens and interpret it accordingly.
Even if one accepts the moral duty to pay tax how should one decide how much to pay if not by inspecting the law? A main issue for tax practitioners is that they act as agents with a professional duty to their client. In this context would it be moral to not advise a client on tax minimization on the basis that the practitioner would see paying more than minimal tax as the ethical course?
How should practitioners react when things move outside what is clear in law?Academic resource containing a plethora of information pertaining to operations research and decision-making. The purpose of this page is to provide resources in the rapidly growing area of decision-making process.
Decisions are the heart of success and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing and nerve racking. Decision-making, belief, and behavioral biases.
Many of these biases affect belief formation, business and economic decisions, and human behavior in general. Decision-making is a field of interest for philosophers, economists, psychologists, and neuroscientists, among others.
A fundamental question that drives research in this area is why do people who are presented with the same options make different choices?
The European Association for Decision Making invites submissions for presentations, posters and/or symposia for its Biennial SPUDM 26 conference to be held at the Technion – the Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, Israel, from Sunday August 20 to Thursday August 24, 1 The use of Bayes and causal modelling in decision making, uncertainty and risk Norman Fenton1 and Martin Neil2 2 June Abstract The most sophisticated commonly used methods of risk assessment (used especially in.
A judgment is simply the official decision of a court at the completion of a lawsuit. It merely indicates that the court has resolved the issues brought before it in a lawsuit in .