Architecture Media is an online and print publisher and events company with a focus on the built environment. Our professional programs and publications are highly respected and valued information sources for architects, designers, landscape architects and other building professionals. Our talks, seminars and conferences make high calibre local and international speakers available to members of the architecture and design professions, sharing valuable experience and promoting discussion and debate.
For more examples, see my article: Yet it's a vacuum there.
The thing is that of course it was a sunny day for the astronauts - you tend to forget when you see the black sky. On Earth some of the light comes to the landscape from the sun and some reaches us indirectly from the blue sky and the clouds.
On the Moon, much of the light comes from the sun, but a lot of light also comes indirectly from the landscape itself. That's why you can see detail in the shadows, and why they aren't completely black on the Moon.
So - it's not quite so surprising as you'd think, but fun. You can make the photos look even more like Earth by reducing the contrast - shadows are not quite so contrasty on Earth. I tried that and it worked. You could also fuzz the edges of the shadows as they are never so sharp edged on Earth, and you'd need to do something about the black sky reflected in astronaut's helmets.
However I'm not trying to simulate an Earth illumination on the Moon. I don't have the skills anyway, there are graphics designers, artists, 3D modelers etc who could do a much better job.
But that wasn't my aim here.
The aim was to show how the Moon is as Earth like as Mars in photographs, and indeed more so, with minimal processing, not even the white balancing they use for Mars photos.
So to do additional processing to make it look more Earth like would rather defeat the point in the article. Perhaps others will do that in the future.
It's similar on the Mars surface, it is nearly as much of a vacuum as the Moon as far as humans are concerned. The moisture lining your lungs would boil there. Mars is not really significantly more "Earth like" than the Moon, I think.
This is a colour enhanced Mars image as you would see it in most press photos - enhanced for the purposes of geologists, so that the rocks look like the same types of rocks under Earth illumination.
There are two ways to do this. The most common method is white balancing which takes the brightest patch in the scene, and adjusts it in brightness and hue until it is white. The other method, occasionally used, is natural colour which uses a calibration based on photographs of a colour swatch on Curiosity that was previously photographed on Earth.
Much brighter - which tends to make humans feel cheerful. While the sunlight on Mars at its brightest is half the illumination of Earth, and as well, it's a dull brown in colour with the Mars dust suspending in the air filtering out the blue.
It has no blue sky except around the sun at sunset. Also there is very little variation in colour in the landscape. It's mainly dull grayish browns, with no blue and none of the bright glints catching the sunlight we have on Earth.
I think that any Mars colonists would have a tendency towards depression just because of the rather gloomy sky and dull coloured landscape.
Elon Musk has been promoting it strongly. Stephen Hawking has also said this is an important reason to go multiplanetary. In this account of an interview with Elon Musk, the author Ross Anderson presents it as: We could swing into the path of a rogue planet, one of the billions that roam our galaxy darkly, like cosmic wrecking balls.
Planet Earth could be edging up to the end of an unusually fortunate run. So let's supply them. Calculation indented, and coloured dark red, to make it easy to skip: Our sun has approximately 4. Neptune's semi major axis is 4.
That makes it about one chance in 2. There may be twice as many rogue planets as starsso that means one chance in 1. Neutron stars are even more unlikely. So we don't need to worry about any of these on the thousands of years timescale. The chances is less than one in a billion in the next thousand years that another star gets as close as Neptune.
Gamma ray bursts are possible also, but would not make humans extinct, even if very close.
Our atmosphere completely shields us from gamma rays, which is why gamma ray telescopes have to be flown in space.In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Chinese characters (including Japanese kanji) are logograms; some Egyptian hieroglyphs and some graphemes in cuneiform script are also logograms. The use of logograms in writing is called logography.A writing system that is based on logograms is called a logographic system.
Perhaps lunar miners could use something analogous to Bruce Damer's idea for asteroids of using CO in an enclosure warmed by the sunlight and iron and nickel extracted in attached 3D printer - . 🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes.
The Mexican education system Pre-school (which is optional and privately-funded) is available for children starting at age three. Primary school is mandatory from ages six to twelve, after which middle school (also mandatory) is for children aged twelve to fifteen.
Interesting examples are the South African and Papuan colourful (but messy) education, Dutch sex education, American carefree schools, and our own vernacular primary schools.
And of course, the much admired Japanese education system. To be fair, I would like to share with you both the advantages & disadvantages of Japanese education . The Japanese educational system was reformed after World War II. The old system was changed to a system (6 years of elementary school, 3 years of junior high school, 3 years of senior high school and 4 years of University) with reference to the American system.