Following the death of his father, who was an officer in the French Navyhe and his mother settled in metropolitan France. He often had to come down from the mountains in order to accomplish missions in Nazi-occupied Lyonan experience of clandestinity that deeply marked his philosophy. His first significant published work was on The Essence of Manifestation, to which he devoted long years of necessary research in order to surmount the main deficiency of all intellectualist philosophy, the ignorance of life as experienced. The sole subject of his philosophy is living subjectivitywhich is to say the real life of living individuals.
Having a Glossary meant I could reduce the text on most pages, while expanding background for the definitions, and relating the ideas to other similar, contradictory, or more basic ideas.
Why Bother with Definitions? The value of a definition is insight. Simple descriptions are not always possible. Terms have meaning within particular contexts.
Tedious examples may be required to expose the full meaning. Good definitions can expose assumptions and provide a basis for reasoning to larger conclusions. Consider the idea that cryptography is used to keep secrets: We expect a cipher to win each and every contest brought by anyone who wishes to expose secrets.
We call those people opponentsbut who are they really, and what can they do? In practice, we cannot know. Opponents operate in secret: We do not know their names, nor how many they are, nor where they work. We do not know what they know, nor their level of experience or resources, nor anything else about them.
Because we do not know our opponents, we also do not know what they can do, including whether they can break our ciphers. Unless we know these things that cannot be known, we cannot tell whether a particular cipher design will prevail in battle.
We cannot expect to know when our cipher has failed. Even though the entire reason for using cryptography is to protect secret information, it is by definition impossible to know whether a cipher can do that.
Nobody can know whether a cipher is strong enough, no matter how well educated they are, or how experienced, or how well connected, because they would have to know the opponents best of all. The definition of cryptography implies a contest between a cipher design and unknown opponents, and that means a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed by anyone.
Sometimes the Significance is Implied Consider the cryptographer who says: First, the cryptographer has the great disadvantage of not being able to prove cipher strength, nor to even list every possible attack so they can be checked. In contrast, the cryptanalyst might be able to actually demonstrate weakness, but only by dint of massive effort which may not succeed, and will not be compensated even if it does.
Consequently, most criticisms will be extrapolations, possibly based on experience, and also possibly wrong. This is the ultimate conservative bias against anything new, and for the status quo. But the old status-quo ciphers are in that same position. Nothing about an old cipher makes it necessarily strong.
Unfortunately, for users to benefit from cryptography they have to accept some strength argument. Many years of trusted use do not testify about strength, but do provide both motive and time for opponents to develop secret attacks.
Many failures to break a cipher do not imply it is strong. There can be no expertise on the strength of unbroken ciphers. So on the one hand we need a cipher, and on the other have no way to know how strong the various ciphers are. For an industry, this is breathtakingly disturbing.
In modern society we purchase things to help us in some way. We go to the store, buy things, and they work.
Or we notice the things do not work, and take them back. We know to take things back because we can see the results. Manufactured things work specifically because design and production groups can test which designs work better or worse or not at all.
In contrast, if the goal of cryptography is to keep secrets, we generally cannot expect to know whether our cipher has succeeded or failed. Cryptography cannot test the fundamental property of interest: The inability to test for the property we need is an extraordinary situation; perhaps no other manufactured thing is like that.
Because the situation is unique, few understand the consequences. Cryptography is not like other manufactured things:Extracts from this document Introduction. What makes Henry V such an effective leader? In the play, Henry V is portrayed as a very good king, and more importantly, a very good leader.
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An overview of state-of-the-art methods for assessing the quality of additive manufacturing processes is presented. • The need for new sensors and monitoring methods for emergent additive manufacturing processes is introduced.
Michel Henry (French: ; 10 January – 3 July ) was a French philosopher, phenomenologist and novelist. He wrote five novels and numerous philosophical works. He also lectured at universities in France, Belgium, the United States, and Japan.
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