Positive and Negative Effects of an Urban Development Nikolay Danev Urban areas of the country are sometimes known as a paved paradise, but development can also take a toll on community development. The urban development processes relate to both negative and positive occurrences in the cities across the United States.
Environmental Effects A s with production and use of any fuels, aspects of biofuel production and use have benefits and adverse effects. This chapter discusses potential environmental effects from the production and use of algal biofuels, the potential influence of perceived or actual impacts on societal acceptance, and some of the health impacts potentially emanating from the specific environmental effects.
Potential environmental Aspects of development and effects on discussed in this chapter include those resulting from land-use changes, water quality, net greenhousegas GHG emissions, air quality, biodiversity, waste generation, and effects from genetically engineered algae with an emphasis on new or enhanced traits.
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Environmental indicators of sustainability and data to be collected to assess sustainability are suggested. In some environments and biofuel management systems, metrics for assessing environmental performance are easy to measure and adequate baseline data are available, but that is not the case in all systems.
A number of potential environmental concerns are evident, and if the concerns are not addressed they could become significant risks under large-scale deployment. As in any other industrial or agricultural enterprise, once they are recognized, such risks can be managed by standards or regulations so that industry is required to reduce effects to acceptable levels.
For the sake of comprehensiveness, a number of potential environmental risks are mentioned in this chapter, but some are less likely to occur than others. Some of the environmental risks might require exploratory assessment and subsequent monitoring to ensure that they do not become sustainability concerns if algal biofuel production is scaled up.
Water-quality concerns associated with commercial-scale production of algal biofuels, if sufficient culture waters are released to natural environments, include eutrophication of waters, contamination of groundwater, and salinization of water sources.
Potential water-quality benefits are reduced runoff of herbicides and insecticides compared to corn-grain ethanol or soybean-based biodiesel because of their reduced use, and reduced eutrophication if there are no releases of culture water or if algae are used as a means to remove nutrients from municipal waste, confined animal feeding operations, and other liquid wastes.
Water-quality effects will depend on the nutrient content of the algal culture medium; whether feedstock production systems are sealed, artificially lined, or clay lined; and the likelihood of extreme precipitation events.
Leakage of culture fluid to groundwater or surface water could occur if the integrity of the pond or trough system is compromised, if flooding occurs, or if spills occur during transfers of fluid during process stages or waste removal, but most of these events could be avoided with proper management.
The liquid effluent also can be recycled from anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted algae to produce biogas Davis et al. If harvest water is to be released instead of recycled, it or effluent from anaerobic digestion would contain nitrogen N and phosphorus Pthe concentrations of which depend on the nitrogen and phosphorus taken up by the harvested algal biomass Sturm and Lamer, Released waters could be more saline than receiving waters, particularly if water from saline aquifers is used for algae cultivation.
Such point-source discharge will be regulated by the Clean Water Act, and a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit would have to be obtained to operate the algae cultivation facilities EPA, a.
However, permit violation has been observed in some biofuel refineries Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Regulation and compliance assurance would address concerns about release of harvest water. The potential for accidental release of cultivation water exists; for example, clay or plastic liners could be breached through normal weathering or from extreme weather events, some of which are predictable.
High precipitation or winds could lead to overtopping of ponds or above-grade raceways. In those cases, the entire contents of algal cultures could be lost to surface runoff and leaching to surface water or groundwater.
Siting in areas prone to tornadoes, hurricanes, or earthquakes would increase the likelihood of accidental releases. However, producers are likely to take preventive measures when extreme weather events are forecasted, and they would put effort into preventing accidental releases of cultivation water because such events could adversely affect their profit margin.
Even where nitrogen and phosphorus are not in oversupply, the total nutrient concentrations in algal biomass will be high. Although accidental release of cultivation water into surface water and soil is unlikely, such an event could lead to eutrophication of downstream freshwater and marine ecosystems, depending on the proximity of algal ponds to surface and groundwater sources.
Eutrophication occurs when a body of water receives high concentrations of inorganic nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, stimulating algal growth and resulting in excessive algal biomass.
As the algae die off and decompose, high levels of organic matter and the decomposition processes deplete oxygen in the water and result in anoxic conditions Smith, ; Breitburg et al.
In some cases, eutrophication-induced changes could be difficult or impossible to reverse if alternative stable states can occur in the affected ecosystem Scheffer et al.
Eutrophication effects have been well studied, and they depend on the nutrient loadings to the receiving waters and the volume and residence time of water of these systems Smith et al.
High nutrient loading could lead to anoxia in the deep cool portion of lakes or in hypoxia in the receiving water bodies. Potential biotic effects of eutrophication include changes in algal density and in the structure and biomass of the broader ecological community Scheffer et al.Describe, Giving Examples, How Different Aspects of Development Can Affect One Another.
While there is a lot of literature on the effect of education on economic growth, with considerable evidence showing that education has a positive impact on economic growth, reverse causality, i.e. the effect of higher economic growth on education may, as The World Bank (b, p.
This article throws light upon the four major aspects of human growth and development. The aspects are: 1. Physical Development During Infancy 2.
Mental Development 3. Emotional Development 4. Social Development. The child is able to establish cause and effect relationship. The child at this stage develops better concepts of length.
Describe with examples how different aspects of development can affect one another. There are many examples that can describe how different aspects of development can affect one another. Most of the time one aspect will lead to another and for example playing hide – and - seek will require all of the areas of development.
As with production and use of any fuels, aspects of biofuel production and use have benefits and adverse effects. This chapter discusses potential environmental effects from the production and use of algal biofuels, the potential influence of perceived or actual impacts on societal acceptance, and.
Aspects of Development and Effects on Another Stanley is a 14 year old boy who attends secondary school. He is extremely overweight and obesity among children can disrupt their physical development and have an impact on their social and emotional wellbeing.