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Classification[ edit ] Dysgraphia is nearly always accompanied by other learning disabilities such as dyslexia or attention deficit disorder   and this can impact the type of dysgraphia a person might have. There are three principal subtypes of dysgraphia that are recognized.
There is little information available about different types of dysgraphia and there are likely more subtypes than the ones listed below.
Some children may have a combination of two or more of these, and individual symptoms may vary in presentation from what is described here.
Dyslexic[ edit ] People with dyslexic dysgraphia have illegible spontaneously written work. Their copied work is fairly good, but their spelling is usually poor. Their finger tapping speed a method for identifying fine motor problems is normal, indicating that the deficit does not likely stem from cerebellar damage.
Motor[ edit ] Dysgraphia can be difficult to diagnose because the handwriting starts out clear and slowly degrades, making the writer appear lazy. Motor dysgraphia is due to deficient fine motor skillspoor dexterity, poor muscle toneor unspecified motor clumsiness.
Letter formation may be acceptable in very short samples of writing, but this requires extreme effort and an unreasonable amount of time to accomplish, and it cannot be sustained for a significant length of time, as it can cause arthritis-like tensing of the hand.
Overall, their written work is poor to illegible even if copied by sight from another document, and drawing is difficult. Oral spelling for these individuals is normal, and their finger tapping speed is below normal. This shows that there are problems within the fine motor skills of these individuals.
People with developmental coordination disorder may be dysgraphic. Writing is often slanted due to holding a pen or pencil incorrectly. They will have illegible spontaneously written work, illegible copied work, and problems with drawing abilities. They have normal spelling and normal finger tapping speed, suggesting that this subtype is not fine motor based.
Signs and symptoms[ edit ] The symptoms to dysgraphia are often overlooked or attributed to the student being lazy, unmotivated, not caring, or having delayed visual-motor processing. In order to be diagnosed with dysgraphia, one must have a cluster, but not necessarily all, of the following symptoms: Emotional problems that may occur alongside dysgraphia include impaired self-esteemlowered self-efficacyheightened anxiety, and depression.
Often children and adults with dysgraphia will become extremely frustrated with the task of writing specially on plain paper and spelling ; younger children may cry, pout, or refuse to complete written assignments. This frustration can cause the child or adult a great deal of stress and can lead to stress-related illnesses.
This can be a result of any symptom of dysgraphia. With digital tablets like Wacom devices, it is now possible to measure the position, tilt and pressure in real time. From theses features, it is possible to compute automatic features like speed, shaking and train a classifier to diagnose automatically children with atypical writing  .
Treatment[ edit ] Treatment for dysgraphia varies and may include treatment for motor disorders to help control writing movements. The use of occupational therapy can be effective in the school setting, and teachers should be well informed about dysgraphia to aid in carry-over of the occupational therapist's interventions.
Treatments may address impaired memory or other neurological problems.
Some physicians recommend that individuals with dysgraphia use computers to avoid the problems of handwriting. Dysgraphia can sometimes be partially overcome with appropriate and conscious effort and training.
They also suggest teaching the students cursive writing as it has fewer reversible letters and can help lessen spacing problems, at least within words, because cursive letters are generally attached within a word. School[ edit ] There is no special education category for students with dysgraphia;  in the United States, The National Center for Learning Disabilities suggests that children with dysgraphia be handled in a case-by-case manner with an Individualized Education Programor provided individual accommodation to provide alternative ways of submitting work and modify tasks to avoid the area of weakness.
Children will mostly benefit from explicit and comprehensive instructions, help translating across multiple levels of language, and review and revision of assignments or writing methods.
In either case, it is beneficial that students are taught how to read cursive writing as it is used daily in classrooms by some teachers. This causes less frustration for the child as they are able to get their knowledge across to the teacher without worrying how to write their thoughts.
With this in mind, there are no exact numbers of how many individuals have dysgraphia due to its difficulty to diagnose. This is the term used by most doctors and psychologists.Getting involved in drawing projects trains / develops a child's ability and willingness to sit and work at a project, explore different ways of making marks, arrange lines and shapes on a page and develops the strength and coordination needed for handwriting.
The education field is so full of acronyms and specialized words that it can seem like a confusing alphabet soup! Find out what AYP, IEP, , and many other abbreviations and words mean in this glossary of frequently used terms.
Dyspraxia: General Information and Guidelines. These notes were prepared in response to a request for information concerning the nature of dyspraxia, its signs and symptoms, and the effects of the condition upon day to day activities including classroom performance.
Handwriting Without Tears is a program that was designed by an occupational therapist to teach children how to write without frustrating them to tears.
It uses hands-on, multisensory materials and was designed in such a way that it introduces shapes, numbers, and letters in an order that matches.
12h Annual Residential SEN Conference Individual Needs - What works? ©Sian Wilson Learning Works® +44 (0) email [email protected] DYSPRAXIA IN THE CLASSROOM: What is it and how can we help?
Presented by: Sian Wilson BSc(hons) SROT. What is dysgraphia? Dysgraphia is a condition that causes trouble with written expression. The term comes from the Greek words dys (“impaired”) and graphia (“making letter forms by hand”). Dysgraphia is a brain-based issue.