Leverth Haynes What is the integration movement in the Caribbean? The Caribbean integration movement is the first example of a free trade area moving to a custom union. The evolution of integration movement in the Caribbean The Caribbean is divided among European languages and traditions and any form of regional integration which was relatively unthinkable. As a result of this the association of Caribbean states was formed Lindsey,p
David Abdullah September 25, Over the last decade, social movements throughout Latin America have intensified their struggles in spite of— in fact as a direct consequence of—the very neoliberal policies that were supposed to end all struggles.
But it seems as if the more alive the social movements in Latin America become, the less we hear of similar possibilities or developments in the Caribbean.
Is it unrealistic to even speak of mass social movements in this region today? True, the history of Caribbean resistance has been characterized by many important moments when mass movements reached a peak and were able to take decisive, collective direct action. Yet Marxist theorist C. The end of slavery did not result in an end of the struggle for freedom.
From the s to the start of the twentieth century, important revolts and mass protests throughout the Caribbean were followed by a more organized wave of strikes in much of the region in the s, before the major eruption of the s.
The rolling strike encompassed all sectors: But employers agreed to wage increases and a Commission of Enquiry was initiated by the colonial government—one recommendation of which was the introduction of limited adult franchise in The s would see the mass movement reach a new level of intensity, as workers demanded not only pay increases but also progressive social service reforms, proper housing, full adult franchise and self-government.
This was the most significant period of region-wide popular revolt, as a wave of strikes embraced Belize, St. Although the resulting wage increases were minimal and did not even restore incomes to pre levels, there were significant social and political gains.
Workers called for full adult franchise, a self-governing federation of the West Indies, the nationalization of the oil and sugar industries and a wide range of social reforms and programs—a political, not industrial relations agenda.
Still, many unions did succumb to the official Colonial Office strategy of stressing industrial relations and constitutionalism over mass mobilization around wider social and political issues. Prior to and immediately after the formation of formal trade unions, the membership of organizations representing working people extended beyond the workplace.
Women, the unemployed and small farmers joined their ranks, though each group was not necessarily organized autonomously. Women and youths held key leadership roles in important labor organizations, such as Elma Francois, who led the Negro Welfare Cultural and Social Association in Trinidad, which also had other women among its principal leadership.
With existing community organizations sharing workplace leadership, the labor organizations easily articulated the broader social issues of the day.
In the aftermath of world war II, british and u. This was not just a Cold War strategy, but also a way of ensuring that when political independence came—which the British knew was inevitable—it did so with local political leadership in the hands of the elite middle class.
But employers successfully threatened to terminate the check-off system of union dues collection unless the unions withdrew from the party. Imperialism had succeeded in breaking the back of a radical regional labor movement, with one major result being the weakening of the movement towards meaningful regional integration and the eventual end to the short-lived West Indian Federation.
Since the political parties were in the hands of reformist middle-class leaders who divided the working classes along lines of race, religion, geography, party and trade union affiliation, the road was now clear for political independence to be granted.
In the lead up to independence and just afterwards, foreign capital was therefore able to freely penetrate and exploit the region. Multinational aluminum, oil, hotel, banking and insurance and manufacturing companies entered the region with great ease, making significant profits as a result of the attractive investment incentives offered by governments.
The social settlement of independence—with all of its outward symbols of anthem, flag and sovereignty—had not altered the old imperialist economic and social relations, and while political power was now formally in local hands, the real rulers continued to be transnational capital and its local agents.
The working classes understood this, and prepared to revolt once again.The evolution of integration movement in the Caribbean The Caribbean is divided among European languages and traditions and any form of regional integration which was relatively unthinkable.
As a result of this the association of Caribbean states was formed (Lindsey, , p49). caribbean studies module two: issues in caribbean development topic: the integration movement 1.
Freedom of movement was reintroduced into the Caribbean integration agenda by the Grand Anse Declaration and Work Programme for the Advancement of the Integration Movement.
Regional Integration is a process in which neighboring states enter into an agreement in order to upgrade cooperation through common institutions and rules.
The objectives of the agreement could range from economic to political to environmental, although it has typically taken the form of a political economy initiative where commercial interests are . Imperialism had succeeded in breaking the back of a radical regional labor movement, with one major result being the weakening of the movement towards meaningful regional integration and the eventual end to the short-lived () West Indian Federation.
The Conference noted the evolution of the concept and its application of functional cooperation in the Community; and identified the priorities and targets for implementation in areas that optimally contribute to the regional integration process and the development and well-being of CARICOM citizens.